Maartje Raijmakers

CV updated februari 2015

Associate professor
Developmental Psychology

Affiliated professor
Cognitive Development
National Center Science and Technology/Science Center NEMO (NCWT/NEMO)

Oratie (16 mei 2012) staat online als een
webcollege
Oratie als pdf

University of Amsterdam
Weesperplein 4
1018 XA Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Phone +31-205257014
Fax +31-206390279
m.e.j.raijmakers [at] uva.nl


| Recent projects | Publications | PhD-Thesis | Teaching |


My major interest is development of learning. In adult category learning different learning processes have been distinguished, such as rational learning (forming explicit, rule-based representations) and associative learning (forming exemplar-based representations). How do different learning mechanisms develop from infancy into adolescence? An important focus of my research is the measurement issue: how can we detect different learning mechanisms in a reliable way such that we account for possible individual differences. I apply statistical, latent variable techniques to account for inter-individual differences (within the same age group different children show different learning processes) and intra-individual differences (within the course of one learning task, the learning process may change). I study science learning as a specific context. Also in science learning, people acquire different types of knowledge, implicit and explicit knowledge. We study learning processes, including exploration, causal reasoning and mental models.

Current projects concern: causal reasoning and exploration (in controled and informal settings), learning rule-based category structures in infancy, development of rule-use in toddlers, computational models of learning, mathematical models of learning, development of na•ve theories, comparative analysis of learning processes.

   Participation in the infant research: www.HoeLerenBabies.nl


Recent projects

Talentenkracht (2012-2016; Curious Minds, Platform Beta Techniek): I Mental models: Guiding knowledge development in the individual child. II Optimizing materials for experimentation..

Kleuters aan Zet in NEMO (2010-2011; Science Center Exhibition): .

Research Priority Programme Amsterdam Brain & Cognition : Category Formation.

Research Priority Programme Yield

NWO-VIDI / Aspasia (2007-2011): The dynamics of simple rule learning in infants and preschoolers.

People participating in current projects

Pralle Kriengwatana postdoc

Bianca van Bers, teacher
Rooske Franse, PhD-student (part-time, science practitioner)
Evin Aktar, PhD-student / postdoc
Tessa van Schijndel, postdoc


Publications

 

International journal articles

 

van Schijndel, T. J., Visser, I., van Bers, B. M., & Raijmakers, M. E. (2015). Preschoolers perform more informative experiments after observing theory-violating evidence. Journal of experimental child psychology, 131, 104-119.

 

van Bers, B. M., Visser, I., & Raijmakers, M. (2014). Preschoolers can form abstract rule representations regardless of cognitive flexibility. Journal of experimental child psychology, 124, 50-66.

 

van Bers, B. M., Visser, I., & Raijmakers, M. (2014). Preschoolers learn to switch with causally related feedback. Journal of experimental child psychology, 126, 91-102.

 

Ter Schure, S, Mandell, DJ, Escudero, P, Raijmakers, M.E.J., Johnson, S.P. (2014). Learning StimulusLocation Associations in 8and 11MonthOld Infants: Multimodal Versus Unimodal Information. Infancy 19 (5), 476-495.

 

Peters, S., Braams, B.R., Raijmakers, M.E., Koolschijn, P.C.M.P., Crone, E.A (2014). The neural coding of feedback learning across child and adolescent development. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 26 (8): 1705-1720.

 

Peters, S., Koolschijn, P.C.M.P., Crone, E.A., van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K., Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2014). Strategies influence neural activity for feedback learning across child and adolescent development. Neuropsychologia, 62: 365-374.

 

Andersen, L. M., Visser, I., Crone, E. A., Koolschijn, P. C., & Raijmakers, M. E. (2014). Cognitive Strategy Use as an Index of Developmental Differences in Neural Responses to Feedback. Developmental Psychology , 50(12), 2686.

 

Raijmakers, M. E. J. , Schmittmann, & V. D., Visser, I. (2014). Costs and benefits of automatization in category learning of ill-defined rules. Cognitive Psychology, 69, p. 1-24.

 

Frappart, S., Raijmakers, M. E. J. & Fr¸de, V. (2014). What do Children Know and Understand about Universal Gravitation? Structural and Developmental Aspects. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 120, p. 17 – 38.

 

Jansen, B., Hofman, A, Straatemeier, M., van Bers, B., Raijmakers, M. E. J., & van der Maas, H. L. J. (2014). The role of pattern recognition in children's exact enumeration of small numbers. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 32, 178–194.

 

Raijmakers, M. E., Mandell, D. J., van Es, S. E., & Counihan, M. (2014). ChildrenÕs strategy use when playing strategic games. Synthese, 191(3), 355-370.

 

Wanrooij, K., Escudero, P. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2013). What do listeners learn from exposure to a vowel distribution? An analysis of listening strategies in distributional learning. Journal of Phonetics , 41(5), 307-319.

 

Gierasimczuk, N., Van der Maas, H.L.J., & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2013). An Analytic Tableaux Model for Deductive Mastermind Empirically Tested with a Massively Used Online Learning System. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22 (3), 297-314

Mandell, D.J. & Raijmakers M.E.J. (2012). Using a single feature to discriminate and form categories: The interaction between color, form and exemplar number. Infant Behavior & Development.

Visser, I., & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2012). Developing Representations of Compound Stimuli. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(March), 1-11.

Schmittmann, V. D., van der Maas, H. L. J., & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2012). Distinct discrimination learning strategies and their relation with spatial memory and attentional control in 4- to 14-year-olds.Journal of experimental child psychology, 111(4), 644-62.

van Bers, B. M. C. W., Visser, I., van Schijndel, T. J. P., Mandell, D. J. and Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2011). The Dynamics of Development on the Dimensional Change Card Sorting task.Developmental Science.

Van Schijndel, T. J. P., Franse, R. K., & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2010). The Exploratory Behavior Scale: Assessing young visitors hands-on behavior in science museums. Science Education, 94(5), 794-809.

Van Schijndel, T.J.P., Singer, E., Maas, H. van der, & Raijmakers, M. (2010). A programme and young children exploratory play in the sandpit. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7: 5, 603 — 617.

Schmittmann, V. D., Dolan, C. V., Raijmakers, M. E. J., & Batchelder, W. H. (2010). Parameter identification in multinomial processing tree models.Behavior research methods, 42(3), 836-46.

Kan, KJ, Ploeger, A. , Raijmakers M.E.J., Dolan, C.V., & van der Maas, H.L.J. (2010). Nonlinear Epigenetic Variance: Review and Simulations. Developmental Science, 1 - 17.

Raijmakers, M. E. J., Coffey,E., Stevenson, C., Winkel, J., & Berkeljon, A. (2009). An ART neural network model of discrimination shift learning. The annual meeting of the cognitive science society Amsterdam, p. 791 – 796.

Visser, I., Pothos, E., and Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2009). Individual Strategies in Artificial Grammar Learning. American Journal of Psychology, 122 (3), p, 293-308.

Van der Maas, H. L. J., & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2009). Transitions in cognitive development: prospects and limitations of a neural dynamic approach. In J.P. Spencer, M. Thomas, & J. McClelland (Eds). Toward a New Grand Theory of Development: Connectionism and Dynamic Systems Theory Re-Considered. To be published by Oxford University Press.

Visser, Ingmar, Verena Schmittmann, & Maartje E.J. Raijmakers (2009). Hidden Markov Models for Individual Time Series. To appear in Valsiner, J. & Molenaar, PCM (eds). Dynamic Process Methodology in the Social and Developmental Sciences. Springer Verlag New York.

Ploeger, A., van der Maas, H.L.J., Raijmakers, M.E.J., & Galis, F. (2009). Why did the savant syndrome not spread in the population? A psychiatric example of a developmental constraint. Psychiatry Research, 166, 85-90.

vanEs, S.E., vanSchijndel, T.J.P., Franse, R., & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2009). Children’s thoughts on unborn babies: Representational redescription in preconceptions of children on fetal development. The annual meeting of the cognitive science society Amsterdam , p. 112 – 117.

Ploeger, A., van der Maas, H.L.J., & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2008). Is evolutionary psychology a metatheory for psychology? A discussion of four major issues in psychology from an evolutionary developmental perspective. Psychological Inquiry, 19, 1-18.

Ploeger, A., van der Maas, H.L.J., & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2008). Is evolutionary developmental biology a viable approach to the study of the human mind? (Reply to commentaries). Psychological Inquiry, 19, 41-48.

van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K., Zanolie K., Rombouts, S.A.R.B., Raijmakers, M.E.J., and Crone E.A. (2008). Evaluating the Negative or Valuing the Positive? Neural Mechanisms Supporting Feedback-Based Learning across Development. J. Neurosci. 28: 9495-9503

Jansen, Brenda R. J., Maartje E. J. Raijmakers, and Ingmar Visser (2007). Belief change on the balance scale task. Synthese, 155(2), p. 211-236.

Visser, I., Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (2007). Characterizing Sequence Learning: Online Measures and Hidden Markov Models Show Associations and Dissociations. Memory & Cognition, 35(6), p.1502-1517.

 

Schmittmann, V. D., Visser, I., & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (2006). Multiple learning modes in the development of performance on a rules-based category-learning task. Neuropsychologia, 44 (11), 2079 -91.

van der Maas, H.L.J., Dolan, C.V., Grasman, R.P.P.P., Wicherts, J.M., Huizinga, H.M., Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2006). A dynamical model of general intelligence: The positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism. Psychological Review, Vol. 113 (2006), p. 842-861

van der Maas, H.L.J. ,  M.E.J. Raijmakers, & Visser, I. (2005). Inferring the Structure of Latent  Class Models Using a Genetic Algorithm. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 37(2), pp. 340-352.

Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (2004). Modeling developmental transitions in Adaptive Resonance Theory. Developmental Science, 7(2), 149-157.

Raijmakers, M.E.J., Jansen, B.R.J. & van der Maas, H.L.J. (2004). Rules and Development in Triad Classification Task Performance. Developmental Review, 24(3), 289-321.

Visser, I., Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (2002) Fitting hidden Markov models to psychological data. Scientific Programming, 10, 185-199.

Raijmakers, M.E.J., Dolan, C.V. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (2001). Finite Mixture Distribution Models of Simple Discrimination Learning. Memory & Cognition.

Molenaar, P.C.M. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2000). A causal interpretation of Piaget's theory of cognitive development: Reflections on the relationship between epigenesis and nonlinear dynamics. New ideas in psychology, 18(1), p. 41-56.

Molenaar, P.C.M. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2000). A phase transition between localist and distributed representation. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 23 (4), 486.

Van der Maas, L.J. van der & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2000). A Phase Transition Model for Mother-Child Interaction: Comment on Olthof et al., 2000. Infant and Child Development, 9, 75-83.

Visser, I., Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (2000). Confidence intervals for hidden Markov model parameters. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 53, 317-327.

Molenaar, P.C.M. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (1999). Additional aspects of third source variation for the genetical analysis of human development and behaviour: a commentary on Eaves et al. Twin Research, 2, 49-62.

Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (1997): Exact ART: A complete implementation of an ART network. Neural Networks, 10(4), 649-669.

Raijmakers, M.E.J. (1997). Is the learning paradox refuted? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 20(4), p. 573.

Raijmakers, M.E.J. (1997): Book review van J.L. Elman, E.A. Bates, M.H. Johnson, A. Karmiloff-Smith, D. Parisi, K. Plunkett. Rethinking innateness: a connectionist perspective on development. Acta Psychologica, 97, p. 307-311.

Raijmakers, M.E.J. van der Maas, L.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (1996): Numerical Bifurcation Analysis of Distance-Dependent On-Center Off-Surround Shunting Neural networks. Biological Cybernetics, 75, 495-507.

Raijmakers, M.E.J., Van Koten, S., & Molenaar, P.C.M. (1996): On the validity of Simulating Stagewise Development by means of PDP Networks: Application of Catastrophe Analysis and an Experimental Test of Rule-Like Behavior. Cognitive Science, 20 (1): 101-136.

Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (1995): How to decide whether a neural representation is a cognitive concept? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 18 (4).

 

National journal articles

Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2012). Denkbeelden over wetenschap en techniek: Aansluiten bij voorkennis. Tijdschrift voor Het Jonge Kind, oktober 2012, p. 16 - 19.

 

van Schijndel, T.J.P., Franse, R, Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2010). Kleuters aan zet. In: de Lange, J. & Post, A. (eds.). TalentenKracht magazine, November 2010, p. 6 - 14. Den Haag: TalentenKracht/Platform Beta Techniek.

 

Segers, E., Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2010). Logisch redeneren tijdens het spelen van spelletjes. In: de Lange, J. & Post, A. (eds.). TalentenKracht magazine, November 2010, p. 63 - 64. Den Haag: TalentenKracht/Platform Beta Techniek.

 

Raijmakers, M.E.J., van Schijndel, T.J.P., Franse, R. & vanEs, S. (2010). De idee‘nwereld van kinderen. In: de Lange, J. & Post, A. (eds.). TalentenKracht magazine, November 2010, p. 110 - 114. Den Haag: TalentenKracht/Platform Beta Techniek.

 

Molenaar, P.C.M. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (1994) Reflections on Genetics, Epigenetics and Nonlinear Dynamics. Tijdschrift voor Ontwikkelingspsychologie, 21, (3).

Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (1994): Simulating Transitions in Cognitive Development by Means of Neural Networks. Tijdschrift voor Ontwikkelingspsychologie, 21(3).

 

Contributions to books/proceedings

Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2015). The importance of accounting for heterogeneity of strategy use. In Szymanik, J & Ghosh, S. (eds.).

Raijmakers, M.E.J., Kan, K.J., Ploeger, A. & van der Maas, H.L.J. (2014). Nonlinear Epigenetic Variance in Developmental Processes. In Peter C.M. Molenaar, Richard M. Lerner, Karl M. Newell (eds.). Handbook Of Developmental Systems Theory And Methodology. NY: Guilford Press.

H.L.J. van der Maas, K.J. Kan, A.D. Hofman & M.E.J. Raijmakers (2014). Dynamics of Development: A Complex Systems Approach. In P.C.M. Molenaar, R.M. Lerner & K.M. Newell (Eds.), Handbook Of Developmental Systems Theory And Methodology. NY: Guilford Press.

van der Maas, H.L.J. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2014). The Dynamics of Cognitive Development. In Peter C.M. Molenaar, Richard M. Lerner, Karl M. Newell (eds.). Handbook Of Developmental Systems Theory And Methodology. NY: Guilford Press.

M. E. J. Raijmakers, S. van Es, and M. Counihan. ChildrenÕs strategy use in playing strategic games. In R. Verbrugge and J. van Eijck, editors, Proceedings of theWorkshop on Reasoning About Other Minds: Logical and Cognitive Perspectives (RAOM-2011), Groningen, The Netherlands, July 11th, 2011, volume 751 of CEUR Workshop Proceedings, p. 137-148. CEUR-WS.org, 2011.

Visser, I., Schmittmann, V.D. & Raijmakers, M.E.J.  (2009). Hidden Markov Models for Individual Time Series. To appear in Valsiner, J. & Molenaar, PCM (eds). Dynamic Process Methodology in the Social and Developmental Sciences. Springer Verlag New York.

Van der Maas, H. L. J., & Raijmakers, M. E. J. (in press). Transitions in cognitive development: prospects and limitations of a neural dynamic approach. In J.P. Spencer, M. Thomas, & J. McClelland (Eds). Toward a New Grand Theory of Development: Connectionism and Dynamic Systems Theory Re-Considered. To be published by Oxford University Press.

Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (2008). Modelling cognitive developmental transitions in neural networks: bifurcations in an adaptive resonance theory model. In: Mareschal, D., Sirois, S., Westermann, G. & Johnson, M. (eds.). Neuroconstructivism: Perspectives and Prospects, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 99 – 128.

Berkeljon, A. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2007). An ART Neural Network Model of Discrimination Learning. Proceedings of the IEEE ICDL, Imperial college London, 11 – 13 july 2007 (6 pages).

Schmittmann, V.D. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (2007). Development of reversal shift learning: An individual differences analysis. Proceedings of the IEEE ICDL, Imperial college London, 11 – 13 july 2007 (6 pages).

Visser, Ingmar, Verena Schmittmann, & Maartje E.J. Raijmakers (2007). Markov process models for discrimination learning. In, K. van Montfort, H. Oud & A. Satorra (Eds.), Longitudinal models in the behavioral and related sciences, European Association of Methodology, chapter 14, p. 337-366.

van der Maas, H. L. J., Jansen, B. R. J. & Raijmakers M.E.J. (2004). Developmental patterns in proportional reasoning. In A. Demetriou & A. Raftopoulos (Eds.), Cognitive Developmental Change Theories, Models and Measurement. Cambridge University Press.

Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (2001). A biologically plausible maturation of an ART network. In: French, R.M. & Sougnˇ, J.P (eds.). Connectionist models of learning, development and evolution. Springer-Verlag: London. (p. 83 - 91)

Visser, I., Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (2001). Hidden Markov model interpretations of neural networks. In: French, R.M. & Sougnˇ, J.P (eds.). Connectionist models of learning, development and evolution. Springer-Verlag: London.

Molenaar, P.C.M., Newell, K., Hartelman, P. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (1999). Recursive estimation in nonlinear dynamics: Application to the analysis of stage transition and chaos. In: Savelsbergh, G.J.P., van der Maas, L.J. & van Geert, P.L.C. (eds.). Nonlinear developmental processes. Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen. Verhandelingen, afd. Letterkunde. Nieuwe reeks, deel 175.

Raijmakers, M.E.J. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (1999). A biologically plausible maturation of an ART network. In Mira, J. & S‡nchez-Andrˇs, J.V. (eds.). Foundations and tools for neural modeling. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1606, 730-736.

Van der Maas, L.J., Raijmakers, M.E.J., Hartelman, P. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (1999). Reaction time as recovery time after perturbation. In: Savelsbergh, G.J.P., van der Maas, L.J. & van Geert, P.L.C. (eds.). Nonlinear developmental processes. Koninklijke Nederlandse Academie van Wetenschappen. Verhandelingen, afd. Letterkunde. Nieuwe reeks, deel 175 (p. 159 - 167).

Molenaar, P.C.M. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (1998) Fitting Nonlinear Dynamical Models Directly to Observed Time Series. In: Newell, K.M. & Molenaar, P.C.M. (eds.). Applications of nonlinear dynamics to developmental process modeling. Lawrence Erlbaum Ass., Publishers, Mahwah, NJ.

Raijmakers (1996): An experimental test of rule-like network performance. In G.W. Cottrell (ed.) Proceedings of The Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pg. 827. La Jolla, California. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Mahwah, New Jersey.

Van der Maas, L.J. & Raijmakers, M.E.J. (1995): Uncertainty in developmental Psychology. In: Chance and Uncertainty. Eds: W. van den Brink, N. van Dijk, J. Bethlehem et al., Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.

 

 



PhD-thesis:

Raijmakers, M.E.J. (1996). Epigenesis in neural network models of cognitive development: Bifurcations, more powerful structures and cognitive concepts. Amsterdam: The University of Amsterdam. Co-Promotor: Peter C. M. Molenaar, Promotor: Maurits W. van der Molen.


Teaching

Simulatie van groei en ontwikkeling 2000/2001

Ontwikkeling in de babyjaren 2002, 2003, 2004

Basisprogramma Ontwikkelingspsychologie: Cognitieve Ontwikkeling (2007 - 2014)

Advanced Topics of Cognitive Development (2006 – 2014, biennial)

Propedeuse Ontwikkelingspsychologie (2009 - 2015)